The best poems by America’s first poet
Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) was the first person in America, male or female, to have a volume of poems published. She herself wasn’t American and had been born in England, but she was among a group of early English settlers in Massachusetts in the 1630s. In 1650, a collection of her poems, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, was published in England, bringing her fame and recognition. This volume was the first book of poems by an author living in America to be published. She continued to write poetry in the ensuing decades. Below we’ve chosen five of the finest Anne Bradstreet poems.
‘To My Dear and Loving Husband’. Like many of Anne Bradstreet’s poems, the language of this poem is relatively plain: Bradstreet praises her ‘dear and loving husband’, whom she regards as her complement, the one who completes her. His love is more valuable to her than all the riches of the East, all the gold in the world. Her love for him, too, can never be exhausted. Note the images of money and wealth that populate the poem: ‘gold’, ‘riches’, ‘recompence’, ‘repay’, possibly picking up on the faint pun of ‘dear’ in ‘dear and loving husband’ (not just loved, but valuable to her – in a way that exceeds any monetary value). Bradstreet and her husband lived among the early colonies of Massachusetts in the mid-seventeenth century, where life was hard. It was a nascent civilisation still developing. It’s hardly surprising, then, that love and support are worth more than gold or treasure in such an environment.
‘The Author to her Book’. This poem was directly inspired by the news that Bradstreet’s poems had been published, as The Tenth Muse, by her brother-in-law … without her consent. Bradstreet laments the fact that her ‘ill-formed’ verses have seen the light of day and blushes and cringes at them, but this may partly be female modesty. Bradstreet also claims the volume as her ‘child’, casting herself as the mother – if not the midwife – to the book.
‘The Flesh and the Spirit’. This poem features a conversation between Flesh and Spirit, which are personified as two sisters who engage in a dialogue about where true sustenance lies – with the flesh (the body and worldly existence) or the spirit (the soul and the afterlife). This poem might be compared with Andrew Marvell’s ‘A Dialogue Between the Soul and the Body’.
‘Upon the Burning of our House’. In 1666, a great fire consumed much of the considerable library of books owned by Anne Bradstreet. This happened in July 1666 – two months before that other great fire that would destroy much of London and that John Evelyn would chronicle in his diary – and it occurred on the other side of the Atlantic, in Massachusetts. But Bradstreet accepts the loss of her house and possessions with stoicism, detecting God’s hand in the disaster and interpreting the fire as a sign that she doesn’t need such worldly possessions.
‘For Deliverance from a Fever’. Life in the early colonial settlements in the New World was hard, and many people didn’t live to see old age. Many of Bradstreet’s poems highlight the hardships faced by her and her fellow settlers, and ‘For Deliverance from a Fever’ is a fine example of this sort of poem. Bradstreet addresses God and asks to be relieved of the fever – this poem, like a number of Bradstreet’s, reads like a prayer. This poem followed an earlier poem about illness, ‘Upon a Fit of Sickness’, which Bradstreet had written; in this poem, she is cured of her fever, and thanks God for delivering her from it. Many, after all, were not so lucky.