The best Wordsworth poems
W. H. Auden said of Edward Lear that ‘he became a land’. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) became ‘Romanticism’, in many ways: he came to embody the starting-point of English Romanticism through his early collaboration with Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Lyrical Ballads (1798) and his famous preface, published two years later in the second edition, calling for poetry which uses direct, natural human speech rather than overly ornate language and diction. In 1843 he became the UK Poet Laureate, and wrote barely a word more. But in his lifetime he wrote a great amount of poetry, in various forms and modes. Below are ten of Wordsworth’s very best poems, with a little bit about them.
‘Composed upon Westminster Bridge’. This sonnet, written in 1802, praises the beauty of London in the early morning light, as the poet stands on Westminster Bridge admiring the surrounding buildings. London, even by the early nineteenth century, was a world of industrialisation, smog (that is, smoky fog, created by industrial activity), as well as the centre of government and empire, two things that came under heavy scrutiny by the early Romantic poets. Yet the London of early morning is serene and still, and it is this quiet scene that Wordsworth praises here.
‘I wandered lonely as a cloud’. One of Wordsworth’s most famous poems, ‘I wandered lonely as a cloud’ (as it should properly be known; it’s commonly known as ‘Daffodils’) is about the poet’s kinship with nature, and how the memory of the daffodils dancing cheers him whenever he recalls them. What’s less well-known is that Wordsworth’s sister Dorothy – and, indeed, his wife – had a hand in the composition of the poem, as we explore here.
from The Prelude. Wordsworth’s great long autobiographical poem in blank verse (though it’s not without its flaws), The Prelude has many great passages, and this is one of the best, from the first book of the poem, describing the poet’s schooldays. If this excerpt whets your appetite for the whole poem, you can read that here.
‘London, 1802’. In this sonnet, Wordsworth addresses the poet John Milton (1608-74), expressing the wish that Milton were still alive, because his country, England, needs him now. England has become stagnant and corrupt in all quarters. Everyone has become selfish. Only Milton, it seems, can restore England to its former greatness, by restoring the virtues that it has lost.
‘Tintern Abbey’. This poem was not actually composed at Tintern Abbey, but, as the poem’s full title reveals, was written nearby, overlooking the ruins of the medieval priory in the Wye Valley in South Wales. Well, actually, according to Wordsworth, he didn’t ‘write’ a word of the poem until he got to Bristol, where he wrote down the whole poem, having composed it in his head shortly after leaving the Wye. The poem is one of the great hymns to tranquillity, quiet contemplation, and self-examination in all of English literature.
‘My heart leaps up when I behold’. This simple nine-line poem describes how the poet is filled with joy when he sees a rainbow, and that he has always felt this way, since ‘my life began’; he hopes he will always keep that sense of enchantment with the natural world. The poem contains Wordsworth’s famous declaration, ‘The Child is father of the Man’, highlighting how important childhood experience was to the Romantics in helping to shape the human beings they became in adult life.
‘A slumber did my spirit seal’. Often included as one of Wordsworth’s ‘Lucy poems’, this short lyric is about feeling at peace, as though asleep and existing in a deep calm. This is because of an unidentified ‘she’ who did not seem to be marked by the passing of time or the ravages of nature as other mortals are. But wait: in the second stanza, we are suddenly informed of the woman’s (girl’s?) death: she lies still and powerless, unable to see or hear, and has become a part of the day-to-day world of nature.
‘Ode: Intimations of Immortality’. Philip Larkin once recalled hearing this poem recited on BBC radio, and having to pull over to the side of the road, as his eyes had filled with tears. It remains a powerful poetic meditation on death, the loss of childhood innocence, and the way we tend to get further away from ourselves – our true roots and our beliefs – as we grow older.
‘The Solitary Reaper’. As well as writing odes and short lyrics, Wordsworth could also turn his hand to the ballad, as this poem demonstrates. Inspired by a visit to the Scottish village of Stathrye which the poet undertook with his sister, it has one of Wordsworth’s favourite subjects – the life of simple rustic folk.
‘Surprised by joy – impatient as the Wind’. Written about the death of the poet’s three-year-old daughter Catherine, this sonnet is about all death, too – about turning to share a feeling or a moment with somebody who is no longer there. One of Wordsworth’s most viscerally moving poems, and for that reason, one of his best.
The best collection of Wordsworth’s poetry is The Major Works (Oxford World’s Classics). It isn’t a collected works – that would be an even bigger volume – but it features all of his most famous poems and has helpful notes and an informative introduction. For more Romantic poetry, see our pick of John Clare’s poems, Keats’s best poems, Shelley’s greatest poems, and these classic poems by Coleridge.
Image (top): Manuscript of William Wordsworth’s ‘I wandered lonely as a cloud’ © The British Library Board, Wikimedia Commons, public domain. Image (bottom): Portrait of William Wordsworth by Benjamin Haydon, 1842; via Wikimedia Commons.